Source code for gpiozero.pins.pi

# vim: set fileencoding=utf-8:
# GPIO Zero: a library for controlling the Raspberry Pi's GPIO pins
# Copyright (c) 2016-2023 Dave Jones <>
# Copyright (c) 2020 Fangchen Li <>
# SPDX-License-Identifier: BSD-3-Clause

import re
from threading import RLock
from types import MethodType
from weakref import ref, WeakMethod
import warnings

    from spidev import SpiDev
except ImportError:
    SpiDev = None

from . import Factory, Pin, BoardInfo, HeaderInfo, PinInfo, data
from .data import SPI_HARDWARE_PINS
from ..compat import frozendict
from ..devices import Device
from ..exc import (

def spi_port_device(clock_pin, mosi_pin, miso_pin, select_pin):
    Convert a mapping of pin definitions, which must contain 'clock_pin', and
    'select_pin' at a minimum, to a hardware SPI port, device tuple. Raises
    :exc:`~gpiozero.SPIBadArgs` if the pins do not represent a valid hardware
    SPI device.
    for port, pins in SPI_HARDWARE_PINS.items():
        if all((
                clock_pin  == pins['clock'],
                mosi_pin   in (None, pins['mosi']),
                miso_pin   in (None, pins['miso']),
                select_pin in pins['select'],
            device = pins['select'].index(select_pin)
            return (port, device)
    raise SPIBadArgs('invalid pin selection for hardware SPI')

[docs] class PiBoardInfo(BoardInfo): __slots__ = () # workaround python issue #24931 @classmethod def from_revision(cls, revision): """ Construct a :class:`PiBoardInfo` instance from the specified Raspberry Pi board *revision* which must be specified as an :class:`int` (typically in hexi-decimal format). For example, from an old-style revision code for the model B+:: >>> from gpiozero.pins.pi import PiBoardInfo >>> PiBoardInfo.from_revision(0x0010) PiBoardInfo(revision='0010', model='B+', pcb_revision='1.2', released='2014Q3', soc='BCM2835', manufacturer='Sony', memory=512, storage='MicroSD', usb=4, usb3=0, ethernet=1, eth_speed=100, wifi=False, bluetooth=False, csi=1, dsi=1, headers=..., board=...) Or from a new-style revision code for the Pi Zero 2W:: >>> PiBoardInfo.from_revision(0x902120) PiBoardInfo(revision='902120', model='Zero2W', pcb_revision='1.0', released='2021Q4', soc='BCM2837', manufacturer='Sony', memory=512, storage='MicroSD', usb=1, usb3=0, ethernet=0, eth_speed=0, wifi=True, bluetooth=True, csi=1, dsi=0, headers=..., board=...) """ if revision & 0x800000: # New-style revision, parse information from bit-pattern: # # MSB -----------------------> LSB # NOQuuuWuFMMMCCCCPPPPTTTTTTTTRRRR # # N - Overvoltage (0=allowed, 1=disallowed) # O - OTP programming (0=allowed, 1=disallowed) # Q - OTP read (0=allowed, 1=disallowed) # u - Unused # W - Warranty bit (0=intact, 1=voided by overclocking) # F - New flag (1=valid new-style revision, 0=old-style) # MMM - Memory size (see memory dict below) # CCCC - Manufacturer (see manufacturer dict below) # PPPP - Processor (see soc dict below) # TTTTTTTT - Type (see model dict below) # RRRR - Revision (0, 1, 2, etc.) revcode_memory = (revision & 0x700000) >> 20 revcode_manufacturer = (revision & 0xf0000) >> 16 revcode_processor = (revision & 0xf000) >> 12 revcode_type = (revision & 0xff0) >> 4 revcode_revision = (revision & 0x0f) model = { 0x0: 'A', 0x1: 'B', 0x2: 'A+', 0x3: 'B+', 0x4: '2B', 0x6: 'CM', 0x8: '3B', 0x9: 'Zero', 0xa: 'CM3', 0xc: 'Zero W', 0xd: '3B+', 0xe: '3A+', 0x10: 'CM3+', 0x11: '4B', 0x12: 'Zero2W', 0x13: '400', 0x14: 'CM4', 0x17: '5B', }.get(revcode_type, '???') if model in ('A', 'B'): pcb_revision = { 0: '1.0', # is this right? 1: '1.0', 2: '2.0', }.get(revcode_revision, 'Unknown') else: pcb_revision = f'1.{revcode_revision}' soc = { 0: 'BCM2835', 1: 'BCM2836', 2: 'BCM2837', 3: 'BCM2711', 4: 'BCM2712', }.get(revcode_processor, 'Unknown') manufacturer = { 0: 'Sony', 1: 'Egoman', 2: 'Embest', 3: 'Sony Japan', 4: 'Embest', 5: 'Stadium', }.get(revcode_manufacturer, 'Unknown') memory = { 0: 256, 1: 512, 2: 1024, 3: 2048, 4: 4096, 5: 8192, 6: 16384, }.get(revcode_memory, None) released = { 'A': '2013Q1', 'B': '2012Q1' if pcb_revision == '1.0' else '2012Q4', 'A+': '2014Q4' if memory == 512 else '2016Q3', 'B+': '2014Q3', '2B': '2015Q1' if pcb_revision in ('1.0', '1.1') else '2016Q3', 'CM': '2014Q2', '3B': '2016Q1' if manufacturer in ('Sony', 'Embest') else '2016Q4', 'Zero': '2015Q4' if pcb_revision == '1.2' else '2016Q2', 'CM3': '2017Q1', 'Zero W': '2017Q1', '3B+': '2018Q1', '3A+': '2018Q4', 'CM3+': '2019Q1', '4B': '2020Q2' if memory == 8192 else '2019Q2', 'CM4': '2020Q4', '400': '2020Q4', 'Zero2W': '2021Q4', '5B': '2023Q4', }.get(model, 'Unknown') storage = { 'A': 'SD', 'B': 'SD', 'CM': 'eMMC', 'CM3': 'eMMC / off-board', 'CM3+': 'eMMC / off-board', 'CM4': 'eMMC / off-board', }.get(model, 'MicroSD') usb = { 'A': 1, 'A+': 1, 'Zero': 1, 'Zero W': 1, 'Zero2W': 1, 'B': 2, 'CM': 1, 'CM3': 1, '3A+': 1, 'CM3+': 1, 'CM4': 2, '400': 3, }.get(model, 4) usb3 = { '4B': 2, '400': 2, '5B': 2, }.get(model, 0) ethernet = { 'A': 0, 'A+': 0, 'Zero': 0, 'Zero W': 0, 'Zero2W': 0, 'CM': 0, 'CM3': 0, '3A+': 0, 'CM3+': 0, }.get(model, 1) eth_speed = { 'B': 100, 'B+': 100, '2B': 100, '3B': 100, '3B+': 300, '4B': 1000, '400': 1000, 'CM4': 1000, '5B': 1000, }.get(model, 0) bluetooth = wifi = { '3B': True, 'Zero W': True, 'Zero2W': True, '3B+': True, '3A+': True, '4B': True, '400': True, 'CM4': True, '5B': True, }.get(model, False) csi = { 'Zero': 0 if pcb_revision == '1.2' else 1, 'CM': 2, 'CM3': 2, 'CM3+': 2, '400': 0, 'CM4': 2, '5B': 2, }.get(model, 1) dsi = { 'Zero': 0, 'Zero W': 0, 'Zero2W': 0, '5B': 2, }.get(model, csi) headers = { 'A': {'P1': data.REV2_P1, 'P5': data.REV2_P5, 'P6': data.REV2_P6, 'P2': data.PI1_P2, 'P3': data.PI1_P3}, 'B': {'P1': data.REV1_P1, 'P2': data.PI1_P2, 'P3': data.PI1_P3} if pcb_revision == '1.0' else {'P1': data.REV2_P1, 'P5': data.REV2_P5, 'P6': data.REV2_P6, 'P2': data.PI1_P2, 'P3': data.PI1_P3}, 'B+': {'J8': data.PLUS_J8, 'RUN': data.ZERO_RUN}, 'CM': {'SODIMM': data.CM_SODIMM}, 'CM3': {'SODIMM': data.CM3_SODIMM}, 'CM3+': {'SODIMM': data.CM3_SODIMM}, 'Zero': {'J8': data.PLUS_J8, 'RUN': data.ZERO_RUN, 'TV': data.ZERO_TV}, 'Zero W': {'J8': data.PLUS_J8, 'RUN': data.ZERO_RUN, 'TV': data.ZERO_TV}, '2B': {'J8': data.PLUS_J8, 'RUN': data.ZERO_RUN}, '3B': {'J8': data.PLUS_J8, 'RUN': data.ZERO_RUN}, '3A+': {'J8': data.PLUS_J8, 'RUN': data.PLUS_RUN}, '3B+': {'J8': data.PLUS_J8, 'RUN': data.PLUS_RUN, 'POE': data.PLUS_POE}, '4B': {'J8': data.PI4_J8, 'J2': data.PI4_J2, 'J14': data.PI4_J14}, '400': {'J8': data.PI4_J8}, 'CM4': {'J8': data.PI4_J8, 'J1': data.CM4_J1, 'J2': data.CM4_J2, 'J3': data.CM4_J3, 'J6': data.CM4_J6, 'J9': data.CM4_J9}, '5B': {'J8': data.PI4_J8, 'J2': data.PI5_J2, 'J7': data.PI5_J7, 'J14': data.PI4_J14}, }.get(model, {'J8': data.PLUS_J8}) board = { 'A': data.A_BOARD, 'B': data.REV1_BOARD if pcb_revision == '1.0' else data.REV2_BOARD, 'A+': data.APLUS_BOARD, 'CM': data.CM_BOARD, 'CM3': data.CM_BOARD, 'CM3+': data.CM3PLUS_BOARD, 'Zero': data.ZERO12_BOARD if pcb_revision == '1.2' else data.ZERO13_BOARD, 'Zero W': data.ZERO13_BOARD, 'Zero2W': data.ZERO2_BOARD, '3A+': data.A3PLUS_BOARD, '3B+': data.B3PLUS_BOARD, '4B': data.B4_BOARD, 'CM4': data.CM4_BOARD, '400': data.P400_BOARD, '5B': data.B5_BOARD, }.get(model, data.BPLUS_BOARD) else: # Old-style revision, use the lookup table try: ( model, pcb_revision, released, soc, manufacturer, memory, storage, usb, ethernet, wifi, bluetooth, csi, dsi, headers, board, ) = data.PI_REVISIONS[revision] usb3 = 0 eth_speed = ethernet * 100 except KeyError: raise PinUnknownPi(f'unknown old-style revision "{revision:x}"') headers = frozendict({ header: HeaderInfo( name=header, rows=rows, columns=columns, pins=frozendict({ number: cls._make_pin( header, number, row + 1, col + 1, functions) for number, functions in header_data.items() for row, col in (divmod(number - 1, 2),) }) ) for header, (rows, columns, header_data) in headers.items() }) return cls( f'{revision:04x}', model, pcb_revision, released, soc, manufacturer, memory, storage, usb, usb3, ethernet, eth_speed, wifi, bluetooth, csi, dsi, headers, board, ) @staticmethod def _make_pin(header, number, row, col, interfaces): pull = 'up' if number in (3, 5) and header in ('P1', 'J8') else '' phys_name = f'{header}:{number}' names = {phys_name} if header in ('P1', 'J8', 'SODIMM'): names.add(f'BOARD{number}') try: name = interfaces['gpio'] gpio = int(name[4:]) names.add(name) names.add(gpio) names.add(str(gpio)) names.add(f'BCM{gpio}') try: wpi_map = { 'J8:3': 8, 'J8:5': 9, 'J8:7': 7, 'J8:8': 15, 'J8:10': 16, 'J8:11': 0, 'J8:12': 1, 'J8:13': 2, 'J8:15': 3, 'J8:16': 4, 'J8:18': 5, 'J8:19': 12, 'J8:21': 13, 'J8:22': 6, 'J8:23': 14, 'J8:24': 10, 'J8:26': 11, 'J8:27': 30, 'J8:28': 31, 'J8:29': 21, 'J8:31': 22, 'J8:32': 26, 'J8:33': 23, 'J8:35': 24, 'J8:36': 27, 'J8:37': 25, 'J8:38': 28, 'J8:40': 29, 'P1:3': 8, 'P1:5': 9, 'P1:7': 7, 'P1:8': 15, 'P1:10': 16, 'P1:11': 0, 'P1:12': 1, 'P1:13': 2, 'P1:15': 3, 'P1:16': 4, 'P1:18': 5, 'P1:19': 12, 'P1:21': 13, 'P1:22': 6, 'P1:23': 14, 'P1:24': 10, 'P1:26': 11, 'P1:27': 30, 'P1:28': 31, 'P1:29': 21, 'P1:31': 22, 'P1:32': 26, 'P1:33': 23, 'P1:35': 24, 'P1:36': 27, 'P1:37': 25, 'P1:38': 28, 'P1:40': 29, 'P5:3': 17, 'P5:4': 18, 'P5:5': 19, 'P5:6': 20, } names.add(f'WPI{wpi_map[phys_name]}') except KeyError: pass except KeyError: name = interfaces[''] names.add(name) return PinInfo( number=number, name=name, names=frozenset(names), pull=pull, row=row, col=col, interfaces=frozenset(interfaces)) @property def description(self): return f"Raspberry Pi {self.model} rev {self.pcb_revision}"
[docs] class PiFactory(Factory): """ Extends :class:`~gpiozero.Factory`. Abstract base class representing hardware attached to a Raspberry Pi. This forms the base of :class:`~gpiozero.pins.local.LocalPiFactory`. """ def __init__(self): super().__init__() self._info = None self.pins = {} self.pin_class = None
[docs] def close(self): for pin in self.pins.values(): pin.close() self.pins.clear()
[docs] def pin(self, name): for header, info in self.board_info.find_pin(name): try: pin = self.pins[info] except KeyError: pin = self.pin_class(self, info) self.pins[info] = pin return pin raise PinInvalidPin(f'{name} is not a valid pin name')
def _get_revision(self): """ This method must be overridden by descendents to return the Pi's revision code as an :class:`int`. The default is unimplemented. """ raise NotImplementedError def _get_board_info(self): if self._info is None: self._info = PiBoardInfo.from_revision(self._get_revision()) return self._info
[docs] def spi(self, **spi_args): """ Returns an SPI interface, for the specified SPI *port* and *device*, or for the specified pins (*clock_pin*, *mosi_pin*, *miso_pin*, and *select_pin*). Only one of the schemes can be used; attempting to mix *port* and *device* with pin numbers will raise :exc:`~gpiozero.SPIBadArgs`. If the pins specified match the hardware SPI pins (clock on GPIO11, MOSI on GPIO10, MISO on GPIO9, and chip select on GPIO8 or GPIO7), and the spidev module can be imported, a hardware based interface (using spidev) will be returned. Otherwise, a software based interface will be returned which will use simple bit-banging to communicate. Both interfaces have the same API, support clock polarity and phase attributes, and can handle half and full duplex communications, but the hardware interface is significantly faster (though for many simpler devices this doesn't matter). """ spi_args, kwargs = self._extract_spi_args(**spi_args) shared = bool(kwargs.pop('shared', False)) if kwargs: raise SPIBadArgs( f'unrecognized keyword argument {kwargs.popitem()[0]}') try: port, device = spi_port_device(**spi_args) except SPIBadArgs: # Assume request is for a software SPI implementation pass else: try: return self._get_spi_class(shared, hardware=True)( pin_factory=self, **spi_args) except GPIOPinInUse: # If a pin is already reserved, don't fallback to software SPI # as it'll just be reserved there too raise except Exception as e: warnings.warn( SPISoftwareFallback( f'failed to initialize hardware SPI, falling back to ' f'software (error was: {e!s})')) return self._get_spi_class(shared, hardware=False)( pin_factory=self, **spi_args)
def _extract_spi_args(self, **kwargs): """ Given a set of keyword arguments, splits it into those relevant to SPI implementations and all the rest. SPI arguments are augmented with defaults and converted into the pin format (from the port/device format) if necessary. Returns a tuple of ``(spi_args, other_args)``. """ dev_defaults = { 'port': 0, 'device': 0, } default_hw = SPI_HARDWARE_PINS[dev_defaults['port']] pin_defaults = { 'clock_pin': default_hw['clock'], 'mosi_pin': default_hw['mosi'], 'miso_pin': default_hw['miso'], 'select_pin': default_hw['select'][dev_defaults['device']], } spi_args = { key: value for (key, value) in kwargs.items() if key in pin_defaults or key in dev_defaults } kwargs = { key: value for (key, value) in kwargs.items() if key not in spi_args } if not spi_args: spi_args = pin_defaults elif set(spi_args) <= set(pin_defaults): spi_args = { key: None if spi_args.get(key, default) is None else self.board_info.to_gpio(spi_args.get(key, default)) for key, default in pin_defaults.items() } elif set(spi_args) <= set(dev_defaults): spi_args = { key: spi_args.get(key, default) for key, default in dev_defaults.items() } try: selected_hw = SPI_HARDWARE_PINS[spi_args['port']] except KeyError: raise SPIBadArgs( f"port {spi_args['port']} is not a valid SPI port") try: selected_hw['select'][spi_args['device']] except IndexError: raise SPIBadArgs( f"device must be in the range 0.." f"{len(selected_hw['select'])}") # XXX: This is incorrect; assumes port == dev_defaults['port'] spi_args = { key: value if key != 'select_pin' else selected_hw['select'][spi_args['device']] for key, value in pin_defaults.items() } else: raise SPIBadArgs( 'you must either specify port and device, or clock_pin, ' 'mosi_pin, miso_pin, and select_pin; combinations of the two ' 'schemes (e.g. port and clock_pin) are not permitted') return spi_args, kwargs def _get_spi_class(self, shared, hardware): """ Returns a sub-class of the :class:`SPI` which can be constructed with *clock_pin*, *mosi_pin*, *miso_pin*, and *select_pin* arguments. The *shared* argument dictates whether the returned class uses the :class:`SharedMixin` to permit sharing instances between components, while *hardware* indicates whether the returned class uses the kernel's SPI device(s) rather than a bit-banged software implementation. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] class PiPin(Pin): """ Extends :class:`~gpiozero.Pin`. Abstract base class representing a multi-function GPIO pin attached to a Raspberry Pi. Descendents *must* override the following methods: * :meth:`_get_function` * :meth:`_set_function` * :meth:`_get_state` * :meth:`_call_when_changed` * :meth:`_enable_event_detect` * :meth:`_disable_event_detect` Descendents *may* additionally override the following methods, if applicable: * :meth:`close` * :meth:`output_with_state` * :meth:`input_with_pull` * :meth:`_set_state` * :meth:`_get_frequency` * :meth:`_set_frequency` * :meth:`_get_pull` * :meth:`_set_pull` * :meth:`_get_bounce` * :meth:`_set_bounce` * :meth:`_get_edges` * :meth:`_set_edges` """ def __init__(self, factory, info): super().__init__() if 'gpio' not in info.interfaces: raise PinInvalidPin(f'{info} is not a GPIO pin') self._factory = factory self._info = info self._number = int([4:]) self._when_changed_lock = RLock() self._when_changed = None @property def info(self): return self._info @property def number(self): warnings.warn( DeprecationWarning( "PiPin.number is deprecated; please use instead")) return self._number def __repr__(self): return @property def factory(self): return self._factory def _call_when_changed(self, ticks, state): """ Called to fire the :attr:`when_changed` event handler; override this in descendents if additional (currently redundant) parameters need to be passed. """ method = self._when_changed() if method is None: self.when_changed = None else: method(ticks, state) def _get_when_changed(self): return None if self._when_changed is None else self._when_changed() def _set_when_changed(self, value): with self._when_changed_lock: if value is None: if self._when_changed is not None: self._disable_event_detect() self._when_changed = None else: enabled = self._when_changed is not None # Have to take care, if value is either a closure or a bound # method, not to keep a strong reference to the containing # object if isinstance(value, MethodType): self._when_changed = WeakMethod(value) else: self._when_changed = ref(value) if not enabled: self._enable_event_detect() def _enable_event_detect(self): """ Enables event detection. This is called to activate event detection on pin :attr:`number`, watching for the specified :attr:`edges`. In response, :meth:`_call_when_changed` should be executed. """ raise NotImplementedError def _disable_event_detect(self): """ Disables event detection. This is called to deactivate event detection on pin :attr:`number`. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def pi_info(revision=None): """ Deprecated function for retrieving information about a *revision* of the Raspberry Pi. If you wish to retrieve information about the board that your script is running on, please query the :attr:`Factory.board_info` property like so:: >>> from gpiozero import Device >>> Device.ensure_pin_factory() >>> Device.pin_factory.board_info PiBoardInfo(revision='a02082', model='3B', pcb_revision='1.2', released='2016Q1', soc='BCM2837', manufacturer='Sony', memory=1024, storage='MicroSD', usb=4, usb3=0, ethernet=1, eth_speed=100, wifi=True, bluetooth=True, csi=1, dsi=1, headers=..., board=...) To obtain information for a specific Raspberry Pi board revision, use the :meth:`PiBoardInfo.from_revision` constructor. :param str revision: The revision of the Pi to return information about. If this is omitted or :data:`None` (the default), then the library will attempt to determine the model of Pi it is running on and return information about that. """ if revision is None: if Device.pin_factory is None: Device.pin_factory = Device._default_pin_factory() return Device.pin_factory.board_info else: if isinstance(revision, bytes): revision = revision.decode('ascii') if isinstance(revision, str): revision = int(revision, base=16) else: # be nice to people passing an int (or something numeric anyway) revision = int(revision) return PiBoardInfo.from_revision(revision)